Internal Medicine

Feline Urethral Obstruction ("Blocked Cat")

Urethral obstructions are life-threatening emergencies that can occur with our pets.  They commonly occur in male cats due to the urethra being narrower than in females.  Urethral obstructions can be caused by plugs (a mix of mucus, crystals and inflammatory cells), stones, blood clots, masses or congenital defects.  Environment and stress can also play a role in cats becoming obstructed as stressed cats can have a greater inflammatory response and increased urethral spasms.  Read more about Feline Urethral Obstruction ("Blocked Cat")

Perineal Hernias

Hernias are defects or weaknesses in the muscles that keep the organs such as the intestines, bladder and stomach in the abdomen. The rectum and anus are held in place by five muscles, that are altogether called the pelvic diaphragm. Perineal hernias develop on one or both sides of the anus due to weakness in the muscles that constitute the pelvic diaphragm. Seen in both dogs and cats, perineal hernias describe the displacement of pelvic and abdominal organs (rectum, prostate, bladder or fat) into the perineal region alongside the anus. Read more about Perineal Hernias

Addison’s Disease

Addison's disease, known by the medical term hypoadrenocorticism, is a disorder of the adrenal glands that causes hormonal imbalances in the body. The condition is named after Thomas Addison, a British scientist who is credited for being the first person to demonstrate that adrenal glands are necessary for life.

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Bladder Tumors - TCC


Our pets’ urinary systems function much like those of humans. They consist of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter the blood to remove wastes from the bloodstream, and also maintain the electrolyte, or salt, balance of the body. That waste then becomes urine, and travels through the ureters to the bladder, which is able to expand thanks to the transitional cells that make up its lining and its muscular wall. When an animal urinates, the urine passes out of the body through the urethra.

The most common type of urinary bladder cancer in dogs is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) - a tumor of the cells that line the bladder. Most tumors are classified as intermediate to high-grade infiltrative bladder tumors at the time of diagnosis.

TCC can also arise in the ureters, urethra, prostate, or vagina and can spread (metastasize) to the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, or other organs. Approximately 20% of dogs with bladder cancer have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Other less common types of tumors of the bladder cancer of the urinary tract may include leiomyosarcomas and fibrosarcomas. Read more about Bladder Tumors - TCC

Portosystemic Shunts

Portosystemic shunts (PSS) are caused by congenital abnormalities of the veins in the abdomen, specifically affecting liver bloodflow. In animals with PSS, some of the blood draining from the portal system bypasses the liver and enters general circulation. Read more about Portosystemic Shunts

Chronic Kidney Disease

The kidneys are part of the urinary tract and serve the purpose of filtering waste from blood, which is later excreted as urine. Kidneys are responsible for maintaining electrolyte (salt), pH (acid-base) and water balance, regulation of blood pressure, and eliminating wastes. They are also responsible for producing hormones and enzymes such as renin, calcitriol, and erythropoietin. Read more about Chronic Kidney Disease