Internal Medicine

Portosystemic Shunts

Portosystemic shunts (PSS) are caused by congenital abnormalities of the veins in the abdomen, specifically affecting liver bloodflow. In animals with PSS, some of the blood draining from the portal system bypasses the liver and enters general circulation. Read more about Portosystemic Shunts

Chronic Kidney Disease

The kidneys are part of the urinary tract and serve the purpose of filtering waste from blood, which is later excreted as urine. Kidneys are responsible for maintaining electrolyte (salt), pH (acid-base) and water balance, regulation of blood pressure, and eliminating wastes. They are also responsible for producing hormones and enzymes such as renin, calcitriol, and erythropoietin. Read more about Chronic Kidney Disease

Radioactive Iodine

Hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disease of older cats (usually over 10 years of age) that is caused by excess production of thyroid hormone from the thyroid glands. In most cases hyperthyroidism is caused by a benign tumor-like growth of the thyroid gland. In up to 4% of cats, however, the condition is caused by a malignant thyroid cancer, which can spread to other parts of the body.  Read more about Radioactive Iodine

GDV (Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus)

Understanding GDV, also known as bloat, begins with understanding digestive system anatomy. The affected organs include the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestines, and spleen. The esophagus is the tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach; it is a hollow dilation of the gastrointestinal tract where food is initially digested. The spleen is attached to the stomach by a series of blood vessels and the gastroplenic ligament. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine as it leaves the stomach. 

Read more about GDV (Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus)

Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs

The pancreas is a V-shaped gland found within the abdomen along the area between the stomach and the first stretch of small intestine. The primary job of the pancreas is twofold - to produce insulin (the endocrine function), and to secrete inactive digestive enzymes and the chemical bicarbonate (the exocrine function).

Insulin, which is secreted into the blood in response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion, is one of the hormones implicated in diabetes, and is administered therapeutically to diabetics to ensure the body can process digested sugars. Read more about Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs

Bone Tumors In Dogs

Bone tumors in dogs can be non-cancerous or cancerous. Cancerous tumors can be classified as benign (non-spreading, local) or malignant (invasive and capable of spreading to other sites). Non-cancerous bone tumors are rare in dogs and mainly due to abnormal development. Benign tumors are also rare. Most bone cancers (80% - 90%) are malignant. Osteosarcoma is by far the most common malignant tumor, particularly in large dogs. Read more about Bone Tumors In Dogs

Brain Tumor in Cats and Dogs

Brain tumors are relatively common in older dogs and cats. Some tumors are "primary" brain tumors, meaning that they originate from the tissue in the brain cavity, and some are "secondary" brain tumors, or those that originate from outside the brain cavity but then invade the brain by extension (for example, from the nose) or via the blood (metastasis). Most brain tumors are diagnosed in dogs and cats older than 5 years and mainly in pets 9 years of age and older. Younger animals, though, can also be affected. Read more about Brain Tumor in Cats and Dogs